ADDRESS 
Chalmers University of Technology
SE-412 96 Gothenburg
SWEDEN

 

CONTACT
info@nordicryeforum.info

 

 

MORE ABOUT RYE & HEALTH

 
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

A diet rich in dietary fibre from wholegrains have been associated with improved body weight management in observational studies. According to these studies, people who consume more wholegrains have a slower increase in their body weight over longer time periods than people who consume little. One explanation may be that dietary fibre in wholegrain foods decrease the uptake of energy compared to that of refined wheat.

Another explanation may be that wholegrain foods may increase both the short-term and the long-term satiety. This may result in a lower food intake overall and a lower energy intake compared to refined cereals. Porridge and bread from wholegrain rye have been shown to prolong the satiety substantially compared to refined wheat. However, the satiety may not only be affected by the cereal type but also by how the grain is processed, how the food is cooked and how the meal as a whole is composed. In general, foods with larger particle size and intact botanical structures, such as crushed cereals, are more satiating than fine milled.

References

Andersson U, Rosén L, Ostman E, Ström K, Wierup N, Björck I, Holm C. (2010). Metabolic effects of whole grain wheat and whole grain rye in the C57BL/6J mouse. Nutrition 26:230-9.


Boros, D. (1995). Arabinoxylans - The Cell Wall Components Decisive for the Nutritional Value of Rye. International Rye Symposium: Technology and Products, Helsinki, 7-8 Dec. 1995. Poutanen, K. and Autio, K. (Eds.), Espoo 1995. VTT Symposium 161, 111-120


Forsberg T, Aman P, Landberg R. (2014) Effects of whole grain rye crisp bread for breakfast on appetite and energy intake in a subsequent meal: two randomised controlled trails with different amounts of test foods and breakfast energy content. Nutr J 13:26-2891-13-26.


Hagander, B., Björck, I., Asp, N.-G., Efendic, S., Holm, J., Nilsson-Ehle, P., Lundquist, I. and Schersten, B. (1987). Rye products in the diabetic diet. postprandial glucose and hormonal responses in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients as compared to starch availability in vitro and experiments in rats. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 3:85-96.
Ibrugger S, Vigsnaes LK, Blennow A, Skuflic D, Raben A, Lauritzen L, Kristensen M. (2014) Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods. Appetite 80:248-256.


Isaksson H, Fredriksson H, Andersson R, Olsson J, Aman P. (2009). Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 26;39.


Isaksson H, Rakha A, Andersson R, Fredriksson H, Olsson J, Aman P. (2011). Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure. Nutr J 10:31.


Issaksson H, Sundberg B, Åman P, Fredriksson H, Olsson J. (2008). Whole grain rye porridge breakfast improves satiety compared to refined wheat bread breakfast. Food & Nutr Res 52.


Isaksson H, Tillander I, Andersson R, Olsson J, Fredriksson H, Webb DL, Åman P. (2012). Whole grain rye breakfast - sustained satiety during three weeks of regular consumption. Physiol Behav 105:877-84.


Koh-Banerjee, P. and Rimm, E. B. (2003). Whole grain consumption and weight gain: A review of the epidemiological evidence, potential mechanisms and opportunities for future research. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62:25-29.
Liu, S., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., Hu, F. B., Rosner, B. and Colditz, G. (2003). Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78:920-927


Petterson, D., Frigård, T. and Åman, P. (1994). In-vitro and In-vivo Studies on Digestion of Dietary Fibre Components in a Broiler Chicken Diet Based on Rye. J. Sci. Food Agric. 66:267-272.


Poutanen, K., Juvonen, K., Lyly, M. & Karhunen, L. (2010) Rye, oats and weight management. Cereal Foods World 55:66-69.
Rosén LA, Ostman EM, Björck IM. (2011). Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products. Nutr J 10:7.


Rosén LA, Silva LO, Andersson UK, Holm C, Ostman EM, Björck IM. (2009). Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile. Nutr J 25:42.


Rosén LA, Östman EM, Björck IM. (2011). Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 2. J Agric Food Chem 59:12149-54.


Rosén LA, Östman EM, Shewry PR, Ward JL, Andersson AA, Piironen V, Lampi AM, Rakszegi M, Bedö Z, Björck IM. (2011). Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 1. J Agric Food Chem 23:12139-48.


Slavin, J. (2003). Why whole grains are protective: Biological mechanisms. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62:129-134.
Zhang, J.-X., Lundin, E., Hallmans, G., Adlercreutz, H., Andersson, H., Bosaeus, I., Åman, P., Stenling, R. and Dahlgren, S. (1994). Effect of rye bran on excretion of bile acids, cholesterol, nitrogen, and fat in human subjects with ileostomies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59:389-394

 
GLUCOSE AND INSULIN

A high consumption of wholegrains has consistently been shown to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in a large number of observational studies of different populations. This is likely a result of beneficial effects on glucose and insulin metabolism. Rye bread has been shown to provide a more balanced blood glucose response than refined wheat. Refined wheat induces a fast and high peak in blood glucose, usually followed by a quite sharp drop. Wholegrain wheat also have beneficial effects compared to refined wheat, but not as strong as for rye when compared to refined wheat.

Insulin is a hormone that ‘takes care’ of the glucose in the blood and helps our cells to make use of the glucose. The less insulin that is needed for this job, the better. After consumption of rye products, less insulin is produced compared to wheat products. This response is not only due to the fiber content, but also due to other bioactive components in rye and how the carbohydrates and proteins are structured in rye and the rye products. 

References

Andersson U, Rosén L, Ostman E, Ström K, Wierup N, Björck I, Holm C. (2010). Metabolic effects of whole grain wheat and whole grain rye in the C57BL/6J mouse. Nutrition. 2010;26:230-9.


Giacco R, Lappi J, Costabile G, Kolehmainen M, Schwab U, Landberg R, Uusitupa M, Poutanen K, Pacini G, Rivellese AA, Riccardi G, Mykkänen H.(2013) Effects of rye and whole wheat versus refined cereal foods on metabolic risk factors: A randomised controlled two-centre intervention study. Clinical Nutrition 32:941-949.


Hlebowicz J, Jönsson JM, Lindstedt S, Björgell O, Darwich G, Almér LO. (2009). Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Nutr J 16:26.


Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Autio K, Niskanen L, et al. (2003a). Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread Am J Clin. Nutr. 78:957– 64.
Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Poutanen KS, Niskanen LK, Mykkanen HM. (2003b). High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 77:385–91.


Kallio, P., Kolehmainen, M., Laaksonen, D., Kekälainen, J., Salopuro, T., Sivenius, K., Pulkkinen, L., Mykkänen, H., Niskanen, L., Uusitupa, M., Poutanen, K. (2007). Dietary carbohydrate modification induces alterations in gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in persons with the metabolic syndrome: the FUNGENUT Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85:1417-27.


Kallio, P., Kolehmainen, M., Laaksonen, D., Pulkkinen, L., Atalay, M., Mykkänen, H., Uusitupa, M., Poutanen, K. and Niskanen, L. (2008) Inflammation markers are modulated by responses to diets differing in postprandial insulin responses in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. J. Am. Clin Nutr. 87:1497-1503.


Laaksonen DE, Toppinen LK, Juntunen KS (2005). Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 82:1218 –27.


Lappi J, Aura AM, Katina K, Nordlund E, Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K. (2013) Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran. Food Funct 4:972-981.


Lappi J, Mykkanen H, Bach Knudsen KE, Kirjavainen P, Katina K, Pihlajamaki J, Poutanen K, Kolehmainen M.(2014) Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms. Nutr J 13:104-2891-13-104.


Leinonen K, Liukkonen K, Poutanen K, Uusitupa M, Mykkanen H. (1999). Rye bread decreases postprandial insulin response but does not alter glucose response in healthy Finnish subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:262–7.


Ludwig DS. (2002). The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 287:2414.


Lundin EA, Zhang JX, Lairon D, Tidehag P, Aman P, Adlercreutz H, Hallmans G. (2004). Effects of meal frequency and high-fibre rye-bread diet on glucose and lipid metabolism and ileal excretion of energy and sterols in ileostomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:1410-9.


Magnusdottir OK, Landberg R, Gunnarsdottir I, Cloetens L, Akesson B, Landin-Olsson M, Rosqvist F, Iggman D, Schwab U, Herzig KH, Savolainen MJ, Brader L, Hermansen K, Kolehmainen M, Poutanen K, Uusitupa M, Thorsdottir I, Riserus U. (2014) Plasma alkylresorcinols C17:0/C21:0 ratio, a biomarker of relative whole-grain rye intake, is associated to insulin sensitivity: a randomized study. Eur J Clin Nutr 68:453-458.


Mesci B, Oguz A, Sagun HG, Uzunlulu M, Keskin EB, Coksert D. (2008). Dietary breads: myth or reality? Diabetes Res Clin Pract 81:68-71.


de Munter JS, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, van Dam RM. (2007).Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Med. 4:e261.


Poutanen K, Mykkänen H. (2010). Ruisleivän vaikutukset glukoosi- ja insuliiniaineenvaihduntaan. Suom Laakaril 44:3601-03.
Rosén LA, Östman EM, Björck IM.(2011). Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products. Nutr J 10:7.


Rosén LA, Östman EM, Björck IM. (2011). Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. J Agric Food Chem 59:12149-54.


Rosén LA, Östman EM, Shewry PR, Ward JL, Andersson AA, Piironen V, Lampi AM, Rakszegi M, Bedö Z, Björck IM. (2011). Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. 1. J Agric Food Chem 23:12139-48.


Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, Schienkiewitz A, Hoffmann K, Boeing H. (2007). Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 167:956–65.


Rosén LA, Silva LO, Andersson UK, Holm C, Ostman EM, Björck IM. (2009). Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile. Nutr J 25:42.
 

 
GUT HEALTH

Rye bread and other products containing rye fibre can improve bowel function and prevent constipation. This is due to the high content of dietary fibre in rye. Rye foods appear to be more effective in overall improvement of bowel health than whole-wheat and low-fiber foods. The preventive effect of rye fibre on constipation is explained by an excellent water holding capacity of these fibres, resulting in an increased volume of the bowel content, softer stools, more frequent bowel movements and shorter intestinal transit time. 

In addition, consumption of rye products decrease the level of certain enzymes and toxic compounds, which in turn leads to a beneficial pH of the bowel content and a higher concentration of gut friendly short chain fatty acids. Foods high in dietary fibre have been shown to promote a healthy gut microbiota, which may prevent the development of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Research on the role of rye fibre on the gut microbiota is currently ongoing.

References

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). (2011). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to rye fibre and changes in bowel function (ID 825), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 826) and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 827) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 9:2258.


Foerster J, Maskarinec G, Reichardt N, Tett A, Narbad A, Blaut M, Boeing H. The influence of whole grain products and red meat on intestinal microbiota composition in normal weight adults: a randomized crossover intervention trial. PLoS One 2014;9:e109606.


Glitsø, L. V., Brunsgaard, G., Højsgaard, S., Sandstrøm, B. and Knudsen, K. E. B. (1998). Intestinal degradation in pigs of rye dietary fibre with different structural characteristics. Br J Nutr 80:457-468.


Gråsten, S. M., Juntunen, K. S., Mättö, J., Mykkänen, O. T., El Nezami, H., Adlercreutz, H., Poutanen, K. S. and Mykkänen, H. M. (2007). High-fiber rye bread improves bowel function in postmenopausal women but does not cause other putatively positive changes in the metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota. Nutr Res 27:454-461.


Gråsten, S. M., Juntunen, K. S., Poutanen, K. S., Gylling, H. K., Miettinen, T. A. and Mykkanen, H. M. (2000) Rye Bread Improves Bowel Function and Decreases the Concentrations of Some Compounds That Are Putative Colon Cancer Risk Markers in Middle-Aged Women and Men. J Nutr 130:2215-2221.


Holma R, Hongisto S-M, Saxelin M, Korpela R. (2010). Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects. J Nutr 140:534-41.


Hongisto S-M, Paajanen L, Saxelin M, Korpela R. (2006). Combination of fibre-rich rye bread and Lactobacillus GG-containing yoghurt improves bowel function in women with self-reported constipation. Eur J Clin Nutr 60:319-24.
Lappi J, Salojarvi J, Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K, de Vos WM, Salonen A. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 2013b;143:648-655.


Le Gall M, Serena A, Jørgensen H, Theil PK, Bach Knudsen KE. (2009). The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut--a model experiment with pigs. Br J Nutr 102:1590-600.
McGough, N. and Cummings, J. H. (2005). Coeliac disease: a diverse clinical syndrome caused by intolerance of wheat, barley and rye. Proc Nutr Soc 64:434-450.


McIntosh, G. H., Noakes, M., Royle, P. J. and Foster, P. R. (2003). Whole-grain rye and wheat foods and markers of bowel health in overweight middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 77:967-974.
Topping, D. (2007) Cereal complex carbohydrates and their contribution to human health. J. Cereal Sci. 46:220-229.

 

READ MORE – RYE & HEALTH

Kaisa Poutanen and Per Åman, editors
©2014 by AACC International, Inc.


The book Rye and Health provides thorough reading about rye and its health benefits, compiled by the knowledge and experience of 28 researchers in the area. The book covers the chemical composition, process-induced changes, bioavailability, and physiological responses of rye foods, as well as the significance of rye in disease prevention.

NORDIC RYE FORUM

COLLABORATION FOR INNOVATION

AND RESEARCH IN RYE