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Background: Accurate assessment of self-reported appetite under free-living conditions is warranted to conduct large-scale intervention studies measuring appetite at a feasible cost. However, the performance of visual analogue scales (VASs) for this purpose has not been widely examined. Method: This randomized crossover trial was conducted to evaluate VASs in free-living vs. clinic-based settings and to assess appetite response following hypocaloric whole-grain rye and refined wheat diets. Twenty-nine healthy adults with overweight or obesity continuously answered VAS questions about their perceived appetite from morning to evening. Results: No differences in whole-day VAS scores (primary outcome) between clinic-based and free-living settings were observed, whereas measures of total area under the curve (tAUC) showed increased fullness in clinic-based interventions of 7% (p < 0.008) for whole-day responses and 13% (p < 0.03) following a snack. Appetite responses for a whole day did not differ between diets whereas rye-based dinners induced 12% (p < 0.016) higher fullness and reduced hunger by 17% (p < 0.02) irrespective of setting. A reduction in hunger of 15% (p < 0.05) was also observed following rye-based vs. wheat-based lunches. Conclusion: The results suggest that the VAS is valid for evaluation of appetite responses between diets under free-living conditions. No difference in self-reported appetite over the whole day was found after whole-grain rye vs. refined wheat-based diets, but there were some suggested differences at certain postprandial periods, in individuals with overweight or obesity.

Published in: Nutrients 2023, 15 (11), 2456

New study published in Scientific Reports by Pirkola

Fermentation of dietary fiber by gut microbes produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), but fermentation outcomes are affected by dietary fiber source and microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two different fecal microbial compositions on in vitro fermentation of a standardized amount of oat, rye, and wheat breads. Two human fecal donors with different microbial community composition were recruited. Bread samples were digested enzymatically. An in vitro fermentation model was used to study SCFA production, dietary fiber degradation, pH, and changes in microbiota. Feces from donor I had high relative abundance of Bacteroides and Escherichia/Shigella, whereas feces from donor II were high in Prevotella and Subdoligranulum. Shifts in microbiota composition were observed during fermentation. SCFA levels were low in the samples with fecal microbiota from donor I after 8 h of fermentation, but after 24 h acetate and propionate levels were similar in the samples from the different donors. Butyrate levels were higher in the fermentation samples from donor II, especially with rye substrate, where high abundance of Subdoligranulum was observed. Dietary fiber degradation was also higher in the fermentation samples from donor II. In conclusion, fermentation capacity and substrate utilization differed between the two different microbiota compositions.

Prostate cancer is a common cancer form among men, and preventive strategies are needed. In vitro studies have shown that benzoxazinoids in rye may have beneficial effects in prostate cancers, however, human studies are missing.

In the present study published in Scientific Reports by Nordin a quantitative method for analysis of benzoxazinoids was established and the plasma levels in men with prostate cancer, that had undergone a whole grain/bran rye vs refined wheat intervention, were compared to their PSA levels. Benzoxazinoid metabolites were significantly higher after rye vs refined wheat consumption and four of the Benzoxazinoid related metabolites were inversely associated with PSA.

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