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In a randomized cross-over trial, 24 Swedish healthy adults consumed a standardized breakfast including crispbreads based on sourdough-fermented rye, unfermented rye and yeast-fermented refined wheat crispbread, at three different occasions, respectively. The sourdough-fermented crispbread resulted in the largest increase in satiety and the largest decrease in appetite, while the unfermented rye crispbread resulted in the lowest insulin response. The beneficial effects are likely to be explained by the high fiber content and the micro-structure of the rye breads.

Overweight is a large problem in Sweden and in many parts of the world and it increases the risk of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. Decreased appetite and improved insulin response may contribute improved weight management.

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Gut biota

In a randomized clinical trial, 70 healthy adults consumed wholegrain rye, wholegrain wheat or refined wheat during six weeks. The wholegrain intake was above 100 grams in the wholegrain diets and five grams in the refined diet. Both wholegrain diets had favourable effects on bloating, stool frequency and fecal butyrate content compared with the refined grain diet. Butyrate have beneficial effects on colon cell growth, which have been linked to a decreased risk of colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease.

Although differences in wholegrain content did not alter the fecal microbiota or intestinal permeability, the study confirms that wholegrain foods may maintain or improve some subjective and functional markers of gut health compared with refined grain foods.

In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 60 Danish overweight adults were assigned to an eight-week period of a diet high in either wholegrains or refined grains. After a six week ‘wash-out period’, another eight weeks followed where the diets were switched, from wholegrains to refined grains or vice versa.

Intake of the wholegrain rich diet reduced the energy intake and the body weight. The amount of wholegrain consumed, especially from rye, was directly associated with reduced blood concentrations of the inflammatory marker interleukin 6. Measurements of the gut microbiota and its activity could not reveal that the beneficial effects observed from the wholegrain diet were mediated through the gut biota.

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